The IRS and Department of the Treasury have issued final regulations amending the definitions of qualified nonelective contribution (QNEC) and qualified matching contribution (QMAC), settling the issue of whether participant forfeitures can be used to fund QNECs and QMACs.
QNECs and QMACs are types of employer contributions to qualified retirement plans commonly used to correct certain contribution testing failures in 401(k)-type plans. Unless certain safe harbor exemptions apply, 401(k) plans generally must satisfy rules that limit the disparity between the average deferrals of highly compensated employees (HCEs) and nonhighly compensated employees (nonHCEs). Similarly, in nonsafe harbor situations, 401(k) plans must satisfy rules that limit the disparity between average matching contributions of HCEs and nonHCEs. To correct testing failures under these rules, employers can make QNECs and QMACs.
These final regulations finalize the proposed regulations issued by the IRS in January 2017, which first altered the definitions of QNEC and QMAC to allow the use of forfeitures in funding QNEC and QMAC contributions. Before 2017, the IRS and Treasury Department interpreted the 401(k) regulations in a manner that did not permit the use of participant forfeitures to fund these employer contributions.
The final regulations are scheduled to be published as early as July 20 in the Federal Register, and will take effect on that publication date.